There are four main types of cancer in the thyroid gland. These are, in order of frequency, papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic carcinomas. Papillary and follicular thyroid cancers are completely curable if treated on time. Medullary thyroid cancer has a more dangerous course than the first two types. Anaplastic thyroid cancer progresses very rapidly and is very rare.
The first treatment option in thyroid cancer is surgery. In this operation, the entire thyroid gland should be removed and no thyroid tissue should be left behind. During the operation, lymph nodes around the thyroid gland should also be removed and sent for histopathological examination.
In case of detecting the presence of a diseased lymph node in the neck before or during the operation in thyroid cancer, neck dissection should be performed and lymph node groups in the neck should also be removed.
In the event that no diseased lymph node is detected in the neck, it is sufficient to remove the lymph nodes around the thyroid.
Since this type of cancer shows a very rapid course in patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer, most patients lose the chance of surgery when the disease is detected. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are given to these patients. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are applied to the operated patients after the surgery.