Laryngeal (larynx) cancer is the most common type of cancer among all head and neck cancers. They constitute about 3% of all body cancers. It is mostly seen in men over 50 who smoke. The risk of developing laryngeal cancer in smokers was 5-35 times higher than in non-smokers. Today, the risk of being seen in women has started to increase due to the increase in the use of cigarettes and alcohol.
OTHER RISK FACTORS CAUSED BY LARYNX CANCERS;
Ø EXTREME ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, ESPECIALLY HIGH RISK IN ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION WITH SMOKING
Ø BAD NUTRITION,
Ø SOME BRANCHES SUCH AS PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, PAINT INDUSTRY, WOODWORKS,
Ø LONG-TERM CHRONIC INFECTIONS,
Ø VIRUS INFECTIONS LIKE HPV,
Ø EXPOSURE TO RADIATION
throat cancer symptoms
Symptoms differ according to the location of the cancer in the larynx. The first symptom of cancer that starts in the vocal cords is voice disorder and hoarseness. For this reason, in the presence of hoarseness that lasts longer than two weeks and does not benefit from drug treatment, an otolaryngologist should be consulted. As the disease progresses, symptoms such as cough, bloody sputum, and shortness of breath may accompany.
In cancers that start from the upper part of the vocal cords, symptoms such as sore throat that becomes evident during swallowing and hitting the ear, feeling of a mass in the throat, change in speech, and bad breath are in the foreground. In the following periods, hoarseness, cough, shortness of breath, and bloody sputum can be seen in these patients.
Cancers originating from the lower part of the vocal cords cause shortness of breath. As the disease progresses, symptoms such as hoarseness, bloody sputum and cough may occur.
In laryngeal cancers, swelling in the neck can also be seen due to lymph node involvement.
Diagnosis in laryngeal cancers;
A patient with suspected laryngeal cancer should undergo a detailed endoscopic examination by an otolaryngologist. If a suspicious lesion is detected during this examination, the definitive diagnosis is made by histopathological examination of the biopsy taken from here.
Imaging methods such as neck ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) are used to determine the extent and spread of the disease in laryngeal cancer.
Treatment options in laryngeal cancers;
Treatments applied in laryngeal cancer; surgical treatment, radiotherapy (radiation therapy) and/or chemotherapy (drug therapy). The patient and their relatives should be informed in detail about the treatment options, the advantages and disadvantages of these treatment options, and the decision of the treatment choice should be left to the patient and their relatives.
It is the most commonly used and most effective treatment method in the treatment of laryngeal cancer. In this surgery, a single vocal cord, a limited part of the larynx, almost the entire larynx, or the entire larynx is removed, depending on the extent of the tumor. In these operations, only the entire larynx is removed, a permanent hole is made in the trachea, and patients can speak with a voice prosthesis placed after the operation. In patients who have only a part of the larynx removed, the hole opened to the trachea is closed after a short time, and the patients can perform their normal breathing, speaking and feeding functions.
If the cancer cells have spread to the lymph nodes in the neck or are likely to spread, the lymph nodes in the neck should also be cleaned during the surgery.
Radiotherapy = Radiation therapy;
Radiotherapy is applied as an alternative to surgical treatment, especially in early-stage laryngeal cancers, and as a complementary treatment after surgery in advanced-stage cancers.
It is used as an alternative to surgical treatment or as a treatment step after surgery. Radiation therapy takes 6 to 8 weeks. Wounds in the mouth and shortness of breath may occur with radiation therapy, and there is a risk of developing a second cancer due to this treatment in the long term.
Chemotherapy = drug therapy;
It is mostly applied to patients whose cancer recurs before or after surgery in advanced stage laryngeal cancers.
In addition, in some cases where surgery is not applied, radiotherapy (radiation therapy) and chemotherapy (drug therapy) are used together.